Automatic Orbital Laboratories

Bion-M is an automated space laboratory for the experiments in space biology, physiology and biotechnologies. It is produced by JSC “SRC “Progress” (Russia). The first Bion launch was conducted in 1973. The launch of the new Bion-M 1 version was conducted on April 19, 2013.

Bion missions were performed on various biological specimens at different levels of evolutionary development, such us unicellular algae, tissues cultures, lower and higher plants, insects, fish, amphibians, turtles, rats, rhesus monkeys, in total amounting to 37 species.

Foton-M is used for the scientific programs in physics of zero gravity, the development of the semiconductors production. It is produced by JSC “SRC “Progress” (Russia). The launch of the new Foton-M 4 version was conducted on July 19, 2014.


Orbital altitude

Min 226 km
Max up to 800 km


SC Mass 6300 kg
Installed inside the capsule up to 600 kg
On secondary payloads platform up to 200 kg

Daily power for the payloads

up to 450 W

Orbital flight duration

up to 45 days

Data transmission

TM and TV channels,
Re-entry capsule

Control temperature inside re-entry capsule

+18 - +28 °C




Interesting facts 1/3

On July 15, 1975 Soyuz-19 spaceship was lifted aboard Soyuz-U launch vehicle. It was the first international space flight with the docking of Apollo, a US spaceship. The famous Soyuz-Apollo docking was a historical event and a symbol of rapprochement between the two superpowers in the period of detente during the long-lasting Cold War.

Interesting facts 2/3

On April 4, 2019, Glavkosmos JSC, under a contract with Arianespace, launched four communication satellites of O3b Networks, a subsidiary of Luxembourg-based satellite communications operator SES. The name O3b stands for "Other 3 billions", which refers to the world's population, where broadband Internet is not available right now. Thanks to the O3b satellites, the Internet will come to them.

Interesting facts 3/3

Soyuz-2.1a became the first rocket launched from the new Russian space center Vostochny. The historical launch was conducted on April 28, 2016.