Automatic Orbital Laboratories

Bion-M is an automated space laboratory for the experiments in space biology, physiology and biotechnologies. It is produced by JSC “SRC “Progress” (Russia). The first Bion launch was conducted in 1973. The launch of the new Bion-M 1 version was conducted on April 19, 2013.

Bion missions were performed on various biological specimens at different levels of evolutionary development, such us unicellular algae, tissues cultures, lower and higher plants, insects, fish, amphibians, turtles, rats, rhesus monkeys, in total amounting to 37 species.

Foton-M is used for the scientific programs in physics of zero gravity, the development of the semiconductors production. It is produced by JSC “SRC “Progress” (Russia). The launch of the new Foton-M 4 version was conducted on July 19, 2014.


Orbital altitude

Min 226 km
Max up to 800 km


SC Mass 6300 kg
Installed inside the capsule up to 600 kg
On secondary payloads platform up to 200 kg

Daily power for the payloads

up to 450 W

Orbital flight duration

up to 45 days

Data transmission

TM and TV channels,
Re-entry capsule

Control temperature inside re-entry capsule

+18 - +28 °C




Interesting facts

Glavkosmos took an active part in launches of the Indian satellites. In 1988, the Indian satellite IRS-1A was launched from Baikonur, soon followed by the IRS-2B and IRS-1C satellites.

Interesting facts

In 1991, Glavkosmos signed a contract for the development and delivery of a batch of cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen blocks for the third stage of the Indian GSLV rocket. Later, Glavkosmos also designed and supplied equipment for upgrading the cryogenic test facilities in Mahendragiri (ISRO test facility, India).

Interesting facts

The first truly commercial spaceflight of the Japanese journalist Toyohiro Akiyama was performed under the contract between Glavkosmos and Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS in December of 1990).

Interesting facts

In 1987, Glavkosmos started coordinating international human spaceflight projects under contracts with Interkosmos: the first Syrian cosmonaut Muhammed Faris flew to the Mir space station.

Interesting facts

In 2015 Glavkosmos contributed to the implementation of the contract between KazCosmos and Roscosmos - the first cosmonaut of the independent Kazakhstan Aidyn Aimbetov flew to the International space station (ISS).

Interesting facts

In 2019, Glavkosmos participated in preparation of the mission of Hazzaa Al Mansoori, the first astronaut from UAE, who flew to the International space station (ISS) and safely returned to Earth.

Interesting facts

On July 15, 1975 Soyuz-19 spaceship was lifted aboard Soyuz-U launch vehicle. It was the first international space flight with the docking of Apollo, a US spaceship. The famous Soyuz-Apollo docking was a historical event and a symbol of rapprochement between the two superpowers in the period of detente during the long-lasting Cold War.

Interesting facts

On April 4, 2019, Glavkosmos JSC, under a contract with Arianespace, launched four communication satellites of O3b Networks, a subsidiary of Luxembourg-based satellite communications operator SES. The name O3b stands for "Other 3 billions", which refers to the world's population, where broadband Internet is not available right now. Thanks to the O3b satellites, the Internet will come to them.

Interesting facts

Soyuz-2.1a became the first rocket launched from the new Russian space center Vostochny. The historical launch was conducted on April 28, 2016.